About the LEGO Project

Description  |  Contributors  | GOLD  |  Copyright and Licensing  |   Contact Information


Description

The Lexicon Enhancement via the GOLD Ontology (LEGO) project is designed to develop "building blocks" for the interoperability of lexicon data. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation (BCS 0753321), LEGO is creating a data interoperability network by mapping lexical items from multiple lexicons and wordlists to concepts in the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). Mapping to GOLD allows cross-lexicon search at a fine-grained level: users can search by morphosyntactic information as well as by definition, language, spelling, etc. LEGO is also committed to developing a set of "low-barrier" data requirements which lexicon creators can implement in order to join the interoperability network.

Our Contributors

Contributor Name Lexicon or Wordlist Name
Abdu Sabo, Musa Waje, George B., Hilary YoungPolci Wordlist
Adolf TurkinKomi-Zyrian Wordlist
Ago Künnap, Margit KuuskEstonian Wordlist
Alan VogelJarawara Lexicon
Albert S., Julio SuárezPilagá Wordlist
Albert S., Orlando SánchezToba Wordlist
Albert S., Roberto RuizMocoví Wordlist
Alejandra Vidal, Verónica NercesianWichí Wordlist
Alexander AdelaarMalagasy Wordlist
Amalia Khatchatrian, Dora SakayanArmenian Wordlist
Amy BrunettIbibio Lexicon
Ana GerzensteinChorote, Iyojwa'ja Wordlist
Ana GerzensteinMaca Wordlist
Ana María Guerra EissmannYámana Wordlist
Ana V., María CatrileoMapudungun Wordlist
Andrés Pérez DiezTsimané Wordlist
Anita Hertzfeld, Franklin PerryLimonese Creole Wordlist
Anthony GrantEnglish Wordlist
Arkadiy GashilovSelkup Wordlist
Aurore Monod-BecquelinTrumaí Wordlist
Axel Jagau, Kulle KallavusSaami, North Wordlist
Bernard Bichakjian, Hendrikje HettemaDutch Wordlist
Bernard Comrie, Madzhid KhalilovBezhta Wordlist
Brigitte Pakendorf, Innokentij NovgorodovSakha Wordlist
Bruce MooreColorado Wordlist
Carol JustusHittite Wordlist
Carole SwainNinam Wordlist
Catherine PeekeWaorani Wordlist
Cecil H.Zinacantán Tzotzil Wordlist
Celsa Dávalos, Natalia KrivosheinGuaraní, Paraguayan Wordlist
Christopher M., Mackayla Infante-WongEnglish (Old) Wordlist
Christopher SchmidtJapanese Wordlist
Christos Clairis, José PedroQawasqar Wordlist
Claudia J., Kim HillAché Wordlist
Colette Melville, Frances V.Wapishana Wordlist
Comprehensive Aramaic, Stephen A.Aramaic (Ancient) Wordlist
Cynthia Vakareliyska, Kevork HorissianBulgarian Wordlist
David Rodman, Sue RodmanYuwana Wordlist
David Rood, Armik MirzayanWichita Lexicon
Dik Bakker, Ewald HekkingOtomi Wordlist
Donald KenrickRomani, Vlax Wordlist
Doris Löhr, Ekkehard WolffKanuri Wordlist
Edward Vajda, Andrey NefedovKet Wordlist
Eladio Quiro, Phillip LeeEpena Wordlist
Elena NajlisOna Wordlist
Elizabeth Richards, Timothy CurtisLengua Wordlist
Eno-Abasi Urua, Moses Ekpenyong, Dafydd GibbonUyo Ibibio Lexicon
Erik V., Laila KollmannSwedish Wordlist
Ernesto Unruh, Hannes KalischSanapaná Wordlist
Esther Powlison, Paul S.Yagua Wordlist
Fengxiang Li, Lindsay WhaleyOroqen Wordlist
Florence GerdelPáez Wordlist
Fotis KavoukopoulosGreek, Ancient Wordlist
Frances Olson, Ronald D.Chipaya Wordlist
Frank Morgan, Manuel LizarraldeBarí Wordlist
Françoise Grenand, Raymond AlasukaWayampi Wordlist
Félix PairumaniAymara, Central Wordlist
Garba Mohammed, George B., Hilary YoungHausa Wordlist
Ginger BoydMbodomo Lexicon
Greg Anderson, David HarrisonTuva Lexicon
Hauke BartelsLower Sorbian Wordlist
Inna TimiryaevaMari, Eastern Wordlist
Irina NevskayaUdi Lexicon
Iris Audova, Piret KlesmentKarok Wordlist
Jacques Lizot, Ivagene ShiveYanomámi Wordlist
James SantucciSanskrit Wordlist
Jana PriceEñepa Wordlist
Janet BarnesTuyuca Wordlist
Janet BriggsAyoreo Wordlist
Jeff GoodSaramaccan Wordlist
Jessica EllisIrish (Old) Wordlist
Jessica Ellis, Cathal DohertyGaelic, Irish Wordlist
Jesús Olza, José AlvarezWayuu Wordlist
Joan Rafel, Various scholarsSpanish Wordlist
Joan RichardsWaurá Wordlist
Jorge Gómez RendónImbabura Quechua Wordlist
José BraunsteinWichí Lhamtés Güisnay Wordlist
José Pedro, Rodolfo M.Puelche Wordlist
José Seelwische, Nélida N.Nivaclé Wordlist
Jules LevinRussian Wordlist
Juris CibuļsLatvian Wordlist
Katherine HallMaquiritari Wordlist
Kim SchulteRomanian Wordlist
Kristine HildebrandtManange Wordlist
Larry RichardsonPuinave Wordlist
Laura WelcherPotawatomi Lexicon
Leslie G., Kitty PrideChatino, Zacatepec Wordlist
Lucía Golluscio, Adriana Fraguas, Fresia MellicoMapudungun Wordlist
Lynn Nichols, Iris Audova, Piret KlesmentZuni Wordlist
Lyudmila KarpovaUdmurt Wordlist
M. Bub BormanCofán Wordlist
Maarten KossmannTarifiyt Berber Wordlist
Maarten MousIraqw Wordlist
Mackayla Infante-WongNorse (Old) Wordlist
Mackayla Infante-Wong, Kazimieras Plečkaitis, S. J., Sigita PlioplysLithuanian Wordlist
Mackayla Infante-Wong, Mary Ritchie KeyLatin Wordlist
Mackayla Infante-Wong, Mary Ritchie KeyPolish Wordlist
Mackayla Infante-Wong, Mary Ritchie KeyTokharian A Wordlist
Mackayla Infante-Wong, Mary Ritchie KeyTokharian B Wordlist
Mackayla Infante-Wong, Mary Ritchie KeyWelsh Wordlist
Mackayla Infante-Wong, Vincent MillerGerman (Old High) Wordlist
Mackayla Infante-Wong, William C.German (Middle High) Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovArchi Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovAvar Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovAzerbaijani, North Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovAzerbaijani, North; Azerbaijani, South Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovBagvalal Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovBezhta Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovBotlikh Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovBudukh Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovChamalal Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovChechen Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovDargwa Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovDido Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovGhodoberi Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovHinukh Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovHunzib Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovJudeo-Tat Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovKarata Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovKhinalugh Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovKhvarshi Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovKumyk Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovLezgi Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovNogai Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovRutul Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovTabassaran Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovTindi Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovTsakhur Wordlist
Madzhid KhalilovUdi Wordlist
Malcolm RossTakia Wordlist
Marcel Rosalie, Katrin MuhmeSeychelles Creole Wordlist
Maria Manoliu-ManeaRomanian Wordlist
Maria Tsigou, Université RenéGreek Wordlist
Marian Prost, Mary Ritchie KeyChácobo Wordlist
Marianna Di PaoloShoshone Lexicon
Marina ChumakinaArchi Wordlist
Mariya BarmichNenets Wordlist
Mark AlvesVietnamese Wordlist
Martha RatliffWhite Hmong Wordlist
Martin Maiden, University ofItalian Wordlist
Martine DelahayeTehuelche Wordlist
Mary B., Stephen A.Seri Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyAguaruna Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyAlbanian, Tosk Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyAvestan Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyBaure Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyBella Coola Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyCanela Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyCavineña Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyCayubaba Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyChehalis, Upper Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyEse Ejja Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyFrench Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyHawaiian Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyItonama Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyKarajá Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyKatukína, Panoan Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyMaori Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyMarquesan, North; Marquesan, South Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyMashco Piro Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyMundurukú Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyNootka Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyRotuman Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyShipibo-Conibo Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeySiona Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeySirionó Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyTacana Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyTlingit Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyTongan Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyTsimshian Wordlist
Mary Ritchie KeyTuamotuan Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, Donald Pitman, Mary PitmanAraona Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, Estécahandy-Halbide family, Etchebarne Battitta, Etchebarne-Harrixuri familyBasque Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, Field work:Nahuatl, Highland Puebla Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, Guy East, Jeanne EastPacahuara Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, Herbert H.Farsi, Western Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, JR Swanton, Tolmie DawsonHaida, Northern Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, Jessica EllisBreton Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, Jorge CarlosYavitero Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, Nancy L.Rapa Nui Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, Native speakerCatalan-Valencian-Balear Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, R. MichaelCashibo-Cacataibo Wordlist
Mary Ritchie Key, Ursula WiesemannKaingáng Wordlist
María MendozaEse Ejja Wordlist
María Stella González de PérezChibcha Wordlist
Mauricio RojasEmberá, Northern Wordlist
Mauro ToscoGawwada Wordlist
Meredith LeeGerman, Standard Wordlist
Merrill Dyck, Teresa AnnPumé Wordlist
Michael RießlerKildin Saami Wordlist
Miriam Abbott, Patrick FosterMacushi Wordlist
Misión TribusPakaásnovos Wordlist
Mona LogarboEnglish (Middle) Wordlist
Mrs. Alice, Robin SabinoNegerhollands Wordlist
Nancy MorseSáliba Wordlist
Nataliya Kochkareva, Nina LyskovaKhanty Wordlist
Neil Wiebe, Ruth WiebeChachi Wordlist
Nicole KruspeCeq Wong Wordlist
Nicoline SijsDutch Wordlist
Nina LyskovaMansi Wordlist
Odile Renault-LescureKali'na Wordlist
Olga ErinaErzya Wordlist
Ott's material, and OttIgnaciano Wordlist
Patience EppsHup Wordlist
Patrick McConvellGurindji Wordlist
Paul Glasser, Zarina FernándezYiddish, Eastern Wordlist
Piret Klesment, Anja PihlajaniemiFinnish Wordlist
Péter Pomozi, Sirje VolmreHungarian Wordlist
Randy LaPollaGoukou Wordlist
Randy LaPollaHuilong Wordlist
Randy LaPollaLuhua Wordlist
Randy LaPollaLuoxiang Wordlist
Randy LaPollaMawoma Wordlist
Randy LaPollaTaoping Wordlist
Randy LaPollaWabo Wordlist
Randy LaPollaWeicheng Wordlist
Randy LaPollaWeigu Wordlist
Randy LaPollaXuecheng Wordlist
Richard SmithFulfulde Lexicon
Robert Hawkins, Mary Ritchie KeyWaiwai Wordlist
Robert JudyMovima Wordlist
Robert WilliamsGhulfan Wordlist
Roberto SantanderKunza Wordlist
Roland SchuhmannOld High German Wordlist
Ruth Gill, Wayne GillTrinitario Wordlist
Ruth SammonsSanapaná Wordlist
Stefan LangeAghul Wordlist
Stefan LangeAkhvakh Wordlist
Stefan LangeAndi Wordlist
Stefan LangeLak Wordlist
Stefan Lange, Claudia SchmidtKarata Wordlist
Stephan Schuetze-CoburnEnglish Wordlist
Steven MoranWestern Sisaala Lexicon
Søren Wichmann, Kerry HullQ'eqchi' Wordlist
Thekla WiebuschMandarin Chinese Wordlist
Thilo SchadebergSwahili Wordlist
Titima SuthiwanThai Wordlist
Uri TadmorIndonesian Wordlist
Various scholarsPortuguese Wordlist
Verónica GrondonaMocoví Lexicon
Viktor ElšíkSelice Romani Wordlist
Václav BlazekCzech Wordlist
Václav BlazekElamite Wordlist
W. SchuhmacherDanish Wordlist
William SchmalstiegPrussian Wordlist
Winfred P., Susan ChapmanGothic Wordlist
Wolf DietrichGuaraní, Eastern Bolivian Wordlist
ʻŌiwi Parker JonesHawaiian Wordlist

GOLD (The General Ontology for Linguistic Description)

GOLD is an ontology for descriptive linguistics. It gives a formalized account of the most basic categories and relations (the "atoms") used in the scientific description of human language. GOLD is intended to capture the knowledge of a well-trained linguist, and can thus be viewed as an attempt to codify the general knowledge of the field. It will facilitate automated reasoning over linguistic data and help establish the basic concepts through which intelligent search can be carried out.

All LEGO lexicons containing grammatical information are tagged to GOLD concepts from the ontology, thus making the lexicons interoperable. GOLD was chosen as our standard because the GOLD Community aims to bring together those interested in the best-practice encoding of linguistic data, and to promote those best practices across the linguistics community.

For more information on GOLD, please visit its website.

Copyright and Licensing

By default, all the lexicons added to the database after February 2015 are covered by the following Creative Commons license: Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0, see the full license).
Lexicons added to the database before March 2015 are covered by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerical-ShareAlike license (CC BY-NC-SA, see the full license).

Lexicons with a specific license are marked and a license text (link) is provided.


Contact Information

Please contact the LEGO team at legoatlinguistlist.org (Damir Cavar, Malgorzata E. Cavar, Lwin Moe) for more information about the project.

Initial LEGO Principal investigators: Helen Aristar-Dry, Anthony Aristar, and Jeff Good
LEGO contributors: Damir Cavar, Danniella Hornby, Dannielle St. Jean, Brent Miller, Lwin Moe, Shakthi Poornima, Justin Petro, Susan Smith, Dwight VanTuyl, Erica Wicks, Elyssa Winzeler, Lili Xia, Lily Zheng.